Unit 6

Grammar

Verb Conjugation

 In Unit 2 you have learnt the conjugation in the present tense singular. In this unit the first person plural was introduced (we do the action). Below you can see the verb endings in all the persons. You attach the endings after the verb base, which you get by cutting off the “ni” ending at the end of the infinitive. (The infinitives of the verbs are given in parentheses after the third person form of the verbs in the vocabulary sections)

Pronoun

Ending

Examples

én

I

1st person sing.

- ok

mutatok

- ek

kérek

- ök

ülök

te

you

2nd person sing.

- sz

kérsz

ő + ön

he/she/it + polite you

3rd person sing.

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kér

mi

we

1st person plural

- unk

mutatunk

- ünk

kérünk, ülünk

ti

you all

2nd person plural

- tok

mutattok

- tek

kértek

- tök

ültök

ők + önök

they + polite you all

3rd person plural

- nak

mutatnak

- nek

kérnek, ülnek

If we use the polite way of addressing somebody, we use the third person singular form for the singular (polite you) and the third person plural for the plural (polite you all). E.g.: “Ön beszél angolul?” (singular) [meaning: “Do you speak English” in a polite way) and “Önök beszélnek angolul?” (plural) [meaning: “Do you (all) speak English” in a polite way).

There are verbs that do not get the endings listed above (for example, verbs whose base ends in “sz.”). Click here to see a complete description of the present tense verb conjugation.

When to use it?

As Hungarian language has only one present tense, this tense is used when an action is happening at the moment of speaking and also when an action happens repeatedly, that is, what the present continuous and the simple present tenses express in English. In certain cases it can also express future tense.

Locative

The “ból” ending after nouns is a locative ending. It means “from” and we use it when we conceptualize an item (a place) as a container (e.g. a school, a building) or a mass of objects (apples, sugar, money etc.). You can read more about the locative endings in the next unit, where we introduce the locative endings when an item is conceptualized as a container or a mass of objects. Click here to get to that page now.

Nélkül

“Without” translates into Hungarian by the word “nélkül.” However, “nélkül” is not a preposition; it is a “postposition.” That is, you need to put it after the noun that it refers to. When saying “without sugar” you say in Hungarian “cukor nélkül.”